B.Tech. (ICT) Program Overview - 2016 onwards

DA-IICT offers two unique four-year undergraduate programs leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Technology in Information and Communication Technology - B.Tech. (ICT) and Bachelor of Technology (Honours in ICT with minor in Computational Science) - B.Tech. (Honours in ICT with minor in CS).

The ICT embodies the convergence of Computer and Communication systems and has obtained wide acceptance as a distinct discipline. It is also expected that ICT graduates would enjoy a special niche only if they have certain performance capabilities not found in conventional CSE and/or ECE graduates. Logically this convergence takes place at the systems level, but at the same time it is necessary to accept a certain level of granularity as one goes down to the level of circuits, devices and materials. In other words, given the four-year span of a B.Tech. Program, there has to be a trade-off between the breadth demanded by comprehension at the systems level and the depth desired by scientific understanding of the fundamentals.

The B.Tech.(ICT) and B.Tech.(Honours in ICT with minor in CS) programs are designed to operate on a semester-based credit system. Each course is associated with a fixed number of credits. Credits (C) are assigned on an L-T-P-C system, i.e., number of hours required for Lectures (L), Tutorials (T) and Practicals (P) in a week. For both the degrees, the students are required to complete the prescribed curriculum in minimum of four years.


The course structure of the curriculum is broadly classified into 3 categories.

  1. Foundation Courses:These are a set of compulsory/core courses required to be taken by every student enrolled in the program. Majority of foundation courses are offered in the first five semesters. These courses are from the technical areas of Computer Science and Information Technology (8 courses), Electronics and Communication (8 courses), as well as courses in Humanities and Social Sciences (4 courses), Mathematics and Basic Sciences (8 courses). A student earns 111 credits from these 28 Foundation courses.
  2. Electives Courses: Courses of this category add to both the technical strength and humanities and social science skills of the students belonging to this program. The curriculum provides students a multi-track option, where a student can acquire knowledge in breadth as well as depth in multiple tracks through an appropriate choice of elective courses. These electives are grouped in the following four types:
    1. ICT Electives
    2. Technical Electives
    3. Science Electives
    4. Open Electives

    The ICT electives provide expertise in courses which have components of computer systems and communication tracks; the Technical electives primarily provide expertise in some particular track; the Science electives provide expertise in basic sciences; and the Open electives belong to humanities, social sciences and management courses. A student is expected to earn 41 credits from these four types of electives (9-17 credits are allocated to ICT electives, 12-20 credits to Technical electives, 6-12 credits to Science electives, and 6-9 credits to Open electives), which might be taken according to the inclination and interest of the student.

  3. Internships and BTech project (BTP):A unique feature of the programs is the mandatory rural internship, which is expected to give the student a feel of his/her social milieu and is typically carried out with an NGO working in/for a rural setup. Its duration is of 3-4 weeks in the winter vacation falling after 3rd semester.

    After the completion of foundation courses, the student is required to take a 6-8 week Industrial/Research internship. The student has a choice of taking an industrial internship or a research internship depending on his/her career goals. It is scheduled in the summer vacation falling after 6thsemester.

    Finally, the student is required to take aB.Tech. Project, during which he/she is required to demonstrate his/her ability to learn current areas of research and/or industrial interest, his/her ability to utilize the topics he/she has learnt during his/her stint in the program and his/her creative and design abilities. Usually this is done in the final semester, but it may be taken as a split BTP starting in 7th semester and concluding in the 8th semester.

    The current detailed course structure is given here under*:

Semester-wise course sequence

Semester I L-T-P-C Semester II L-T-P-C
Basic Electronic Circuits 3-0-3—4.5 Digital Logic Design 3-0-3—4.5
Introduction to Programming 3-0-0—3 Introduction to Communication Systems 3-0-3—4.5
Introduction to Programming Lab 0-0-4—2 Data Structures 3-0-0—3
Calculus 3-1-0—4 Data Structures Lab 0-0-4-2
Engineering Design Workshop 1-0-3—2.5 Discrete Mathematics 3-1-0—4
Language and Literature 3-0-0—3 Approaches to Indian Society 3-0-0—3
Semester credits 13-1-10—19 Semester credits


Semester III L-T-P-C Semester IV L-T-P-C
Signals and Systems 3-1-—4 Analog Circuits 3-0-3—4.5
Computer Organization 3-0-3—4.5 Analog Communication and Transmission Line Theory 3-0-2—4
Design and Analysis of Algorithms 3-0-2—4 Systems Software 3-0-3—4.5
Groups and Linear Algebra 3-1-0—4 Probability, Statistics and Information Theory 3-1-0—4
Electromagnetic Theory 3-1-0—4 Engineered Materials 3-0-0—3
Science, Technology, Society 3-0-0—3 Environmental  Studies 2-0-0—2
Semester credits 18-3-5—23.5 Semester credits


Rural Internship (4 credits)

Semester V L-T-P-C Semester VI L-T-P-C
Embedded Hardware Design 3-0-3—4.5 Software Engineering 3-0-3—4.5
Digital Communications 3-0-3—4.5 ICT Elective – 2 3—4
Computer Networks 3-0-3—4.5

Open Elective – 1

(non-CS students)
Database Management Systems 3-0-3—4.5

Open Elective – 2 / 

Science Elective – 1
Principles of Economics 3-0-0—3 Technical Elective – 1 3-0-0—3
ICT Elective 1 3—4

ICT Elective – 3 /

Technical Elective – 2
Semester credits


Semester credits

(18/20-0-3) 19.5-21.5

Research/Industrial Internship (6 credits)

Semester VII L-T-P-C Semester VIII L-T-P-C

Open Elective – 3 /

Science Elective – 2
3-0-0—3 BTP 2 / BTP 9 / 13

ICT Elective – 4 3—4
Technical Elective – 3 3—4
Technical Elective – 4 / Science Elective – 3 3—4

ICT Elective – 5 /

Technical Elective – 5

Open Elective – 4 /

Science Elective – 4
Any Elective (CS students) / BTP 1 3—4
Semester credits


Semester credits




Basic Electronic Circuits (3-0-3-4.5): The course aims to introduce the basic electronic circuit modules and the basic circuit elements, show how the phase or concept simplifies the analysis of linear time-invariant circuits, make the students conversant with the analysis and design of such circuits, give the students hands-on experience of assembling and testing such circuits. It includes Electronic Systems like CRO, Radio receiver, TV receiver and Basic Circuit Modules, resistors, capacitors and inductors, voltage and current sources, sensors, Element characteristics, Linear and nonlinear elements, Active and passive elements, controlled sources such as VCVS, VCCS, CCVS, CCCS, AC Circuit Analysis, sinusoidal steady state, phasors, impedances and transfer functions, node equations, superposition principle, The venin's and Norton's theorems, frequency response and Bode plot, Amplifiers, BJT, MOSFET and OPAMP, Amplifiers using opamps, Effect of opamp non-ideality on gain, bandwidth, input impedance and output impedance, Push pull complementary power amplifier using opamp and transistors. Filters, Integrator, Leaky integrator, differentiator, General VCVS based Active RC filter configuration, Low-pass, High-pass and Band-pass filters, Oscillators, Amplifier with positive feedback, Condition of harmonic oscillation, RC and LC oscillators, Amplitude stability by automatic gain control. Function Generators, Comparators, Bistable, mono stable and astable circuits, Function generators using comparator and RC timing circuit. DC Power Supply, half-wave and fullwave rectifiers, shunt capacitor filter, ripple and voltage regulation, voltage regulators.

Introduction to Programming (3-0-0-3): This course aims to introduce problem solving techniques to help the students to develop analytical skills. The course introduces basic concepts of computer programming and phases of program development, deployment and testing to solve computational problems. Topics include: problem solving techniques, flow charts, decision tables and programming using C. At the end of the course, student will be able to develop logical analytical ability to perceive and solve computational problems; to write and test computer programs developed with C programming language; and to work effectively with various computer software tools like editors, compilers, office automation, imaging, etc.

Introduction to Programming LAB (0-0-4-2): This course aims to provide practical knowledge in C programming on topics discussed in the above course, Introduction to Programming.

Calculus (3-1-0-4): This course aims at building an advance understanding of calculus in single, multivariate and complex variables. The course includes: Calculus of One Variable:Differentiation - derivatives, derivatives as rate of change, limits and continuity, discontinuity, rules of differentiation, higher derivatives, implicit differentiation, mean value theorem, differentials, anti-derivatives; Integration - definite integrals, adding areas of rectangles, Riemann sums, The fundamental theorem of calculus, combining the fundamental theorem and the mean value theorem, The second fundamental theorem of calculus; Exploring the infinite - L'Hospital's rule, improper integrals, infinite series, power series, Taylorís series. Calculus of Two or More Variables : Functions of two variables - graphs, level curves and contour plots; Differentiation - partial derivatives, total differentials and the chain rule, gradient, directional derivatives, constrained differentials, Taylor's theorem; Integration - double integral in the plane, exchanging the order of integration, double integrals in polar coordinates, change of variables, Leibniz's theorem for differentiation of integrals, triple integrals in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Vector Calculus: Vector fields and line integrals - vector fields, work and line integrals, Fundamental theorem of line integrals, conservative fields, path independence, exact differentials, gradient fields, potential function, curl, Green's theorem; Flux and surface integrals - vector fields in space, flux through a surface, Divergence theorem, line integrals in space, curl in 3D, Stoke's theorem. Differential Equation: ODE of first order, linear ODE of second and higher order with constant and non-constant coefficients, non-homogeneous equations, power series solutions to ODEs. Calculus of Complex Variables: Differentiation and integration - complex numbers, continuity, point sets, differentiation, analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann conditions, harmonic functions, contour integral; Exploring the infinite - infinite sequences and series, power series.

Engineering Design Workshop (1-0-3-2.5): This course is designed to provide students with the practical knowledge in visualizing creative space that includes crystallography, fractals, stereography, materials processing and machining with modules in Engineering drawing – 2D, 3D visualization, animation, projections, isometric views of lines, embedding of solids; Design space on machines – work with Lathes and CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines for realizing complex machined parts; and Design space on chip-level – soldering, PCB design, multi-layer service-on-chip. The laboratory sessions for the first module includes AutoCAD/Maya/3D printer, the second module includes Lathes with CNC, and the third module is on PCB design accessories.

Language and Literature (3-0-0-3): This course is designed to introduce students to the study of the English language and literature at the undergraduate level. It will follow a two pronged approach, first, of teaching English language through literature, secondly, of introducing the students to the world of literature and teaching them strategies of reading and understanding. Literature is known to widen readers' perspective by sharpening critical thinking and enhancing emotional response simultaneously. This course shall harness the power of literature to sensitize the students on the debates of culture, gender, race and class. The students will be exposed to a broad variety of texts and will be asked to engage with them in multiple ways through class discussions, written analysis, presentations etc. Reading diverse texts will familiarize students with the features and structures of the written language and enable them to become better communicators themselves. In addition to the basic linguistic competencies, the students will acquire the sensibility to appreciate nuances of the language. The activities will be centeredaround reading, public speaking, critical thinking and writing. After completion of the course, students will be able to comprehend written text and to respond confidently in coherent English. Rigorous group activities conducted in the class will ensure that they develop good interpersonal and public communication skills.


Digital Login Design (3-0-3-4.5): This course aims to provide understanding to students of Boolean algebra and logic circuits. Student learns basic building blocks and techniques for analysis and design of combinational and sequential logic circuits. All these finally are to be integrated in basic microprocessor design. The course is to provide a foundation for subsequent study in computer architecture and VLSI design. The topics include Boolean algebra axioms and theorems, DeMorgan, Duality, Expression manipulation using axioms and theorems, combinational logic-canonical forms, two-level simplification, Boolean cube, Logic minimisation, K-map, Quine McCluskey, Minimisation for product-of-sum form, Minimisation for sum-of-products form, SSI, LSI, Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Decoders, Encoders, Hazard-free synthesis, Arithmetic circuits, Adders, Halfadder, Full-adder, BCD-adder, Carry-save adder, Ripplecarry adder, Carry-select adder, Combinational multiplier, sequential logic-Simple circuits with feedback, Basic latches, Clocks, R-S latch, Master-slave latch, J-K flip-flop, T flipflop, D flip-flop, Storage registers, Shift registers, Ripple counters, Synchronous counters, Finite state machine, FSM with single/multiple inputs and single/multiple outputs, Odd-Even parity checker, Moore machines, Mealy machines, Hardware Description Language-Verilog programming and simulation, Structural specification, Behavioural specification, Testbench, Testing using test vectors, Testing using waveform front-end, Design basic blocks and use them to build larger circuits, Case studies, Different adders and their timing comparison, ALU, Counters, Shift-registers, Register bank, Small FSM design, Traffic-light controller design, Vending machine design.

Introduction to Communication Systems (3-0-3-4.5): This is a foundation course for analog and digital communication and other advanced communication courses. The objective of this course is to make the students appreciate what a telecommunication system is, why it is required and its fundamental concepts. Students will get to know some of different types of basic blocks used in a telecommunication system. Students need to perform experiments with some of the basic sub-systems used for telecommunication, measure some of the parameters and validate various concepts. Details of the telecommunication systems like the telephone, optical fibre communication, wireless and mobile communication, and satellite communication systems will be discussed. The course includes basic telecommunication concepts, communication receivers, introduction to antennas and transmission lines, basic telephone system, introduction to optical fibre communication, introduction to wireless and mobile communication and introduction to satellite communication.

Data Structures (3-0-0-3): This course introduces basic concepts of data structures, which help students to develop ability to design and implement algorithms for operations on Data and File Structures. Topics include performance analysis of algorithms; recursive procedures; abstract data types including arrays, lists, stacks, queues, trees, dictionaries, and graphs. Algorithms for sorting, searching, traversal are also covered in the course.

Data Structures Lab (0-0-4-2): This course aims to provide practical exposure on various primitive and abstract data types discussed in the Data Structures course, preferably using C++ or Java.

Discrete Mathematics (3-1-0-4): The course aims to equip students with foundation to take up advanced courses in modelling, design and analysis, and implementation of ICT systems. Topics include Mathematical Logic and Proof Techniques - Propositional logic, Predicates and quantifiers, Rules of inference, and Basic proof techniques; Basic Discrete Structures - Sets; Functions; Sequences and summations; Cardinality of sets; and Matrices; Relations - Relations and their properties; Representation of binary relations; Equivalence relations; and Partial orderings; Induction and Recursion - Induction, strong induction, well-ordered property, recursion, structural induction, and generalized induction; Combinatorial Principles and Techniques - Counting, pigeonhole principle, permutations and combinations, binomial coefficients and identities, generalized permutations and combinations, advanced counting techniques, solving linear recurrence relations, generating functions, principle of inclusion-exclusion; Graphs: Basic graph terminology, bipartite graphs, operations on graphs, subgraph, representation of graphs, Graph connectivity, Euler and Hamilton graphs, strongly and weakly connected digraphs, Trees - properties of trees, and spanning tree.

Approaches to Indian Society (3-0-0-3): This course aims to construct a comparative framework for the understanding of different cultures with particular reference to social organization, politics, religion and symbolism illustrated with various ethnographic examples. The course is designed to provide with the means to apply basic anthropological understandings of society and culture in the analysis of meanings, actions and explanations that is the basis for communication in the society. Student will be expected to reflect upon the Indian society utilizing the readings and lectures. Upon passing the courses student should have a basic critical and analytical understanding of how social and cultural diversity is approached in anthropology and how the diversity of culture, implicit in anthropological explanations,is to be understood.


Signals and Systems (3-1-0-4): This course mainly concentrates on classification and description of signals and systems. The emphasis is primarily on linear time invariant systems. Students will learn both the time domain and frequency domain representations. Students will understand how a linear time invariant system operates on inputs to produce an output determine responses of linear systems to different inputs using different methods (differential and difference equations, Laplace and z-transforms, convolution, state space methods), understand the concept of signal spectrum (Fourier series, Fourier transform), understand relationship between time domain properties of a signal and frequency domain features in its spectrum, understand the concepts of frequency contents in a signal and how these frequencies get affected when passed through a system, understand how the input spectrum, output spectrum and frequency response of a linear system are related, understand both discrete and continuous-time systems. The course makes the students apply their basic mathematical skills to the analysis of signals and systems encountered in practice. The student also learns how one can use a system such as a filter to process a given signal to suit his requirement.

Computer Organization (3-0-3-4.5): This course aims to provide an understanding of the organization of computer systems. The course aims to cover von Neumann Machine - Functional units, stored program concept, ALU, data paths, registers, status flags; instruction cycle; Data Representation - Integer data; fixed and floating point systems; representation of non-numeric data (characters, strings, records, and arrays); Assembly/Machine level - Instruction sets and types (arithmetic, data movement, and control); instruction formats and addressing modes, subroutine call and return mechanisms; representations of fundamental high-level programming constructs at the assembly language level; Heap vs. Stack vs. Static vs. Code segments; Memory System - Principles of temporal and spatial locality; cache memories (address mapping, block size, replacement and store policy); virtual memory (page table, TLB); disk organization and data access from disk drive; and I/O Communication - Handshaking, buffering, programmed I/O, interrupt-driven I/O, bus protocols.

Design and Analysis of Algorithms (3-0-2-4): This course intends to provide a rigorous introduction to fundamental techniques in the design and analysis of algorithms. The course aims to cover the asymptotic notation, divide and conquer techniques, recurrences, sorting and searching algorithms, depth first search, breadth-first search, topological sort, minimum spanning trees, greedy algorithms, dynamic programming, pattern matching, NP-completeness and approximation algorithms.

Groups and Linear Algebra (3-1-0-4): This course aims to covers topics in Groups - isomorphism and homomorphism, cosets, product of groups, quotient groups; Rings - fields, integral domain, characteristic, finite fields; Vector spaces - bases and dimension, co-ordinates; Linear transformations - algebra of linear transformation, matrix representations; Linear equations - system of linear equations, RREF, invertible matrices; Linear functional - double dual, transpose; Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors - orthogonal and unitary matrices, diagonalization, system of differential equations, matrix exponential; Polynomials - algebra of polynomials, irreducible polynomials, prime factorization of polynomials.

Electromagnetic Theory (3-1-0-4): The course is targeted at students of engineering who want to understand medium and its response to a signal. Electromagnetic wave is the simplest signal, its propagation, energy associated with such wave and the techniques to understand its behaviour in different media, are what under the scope of this course. It starts with vector algebra, basic operations of del operator in different coordinate systems, connection between inverse square law and Gauss's law, Stoke's theorem. It introduces the electric charge and electric current as sources of the vector fields E and B, Ampere's law as an integral statement of Biot-Savart law and thus covers concept of field energy. It discusses Faraday's law as connecting link between E and B fields leading to Maxwell's equations. Wave equation, Poynting vector and Poynting Theorem, plane electromagnetic waves in vacuum and in other media, polarization, reflection and refraction at interfaces will be covered in this course. Concept of waveguides and radiation from different antenna systems will also be introduced. In this way the course will prepare students to take up advanced ideas in radio frequency engineering or communications. This will also let the students get a first glimpse of kind of ideas involved in several branches of Physics.

Science, Technology, Society (3-0-0-3): This course is to introduce students to the communication dynamics that happens between society and culture, between science and technology and how it is conceptualized in the history of ideas to produce different systems of rationality and knowledge. The aim is to question the implications of science and technology in relation to social change, modernization, and policy formation exploring power and knowledge dimensions. Some of the ways in which the course could explore the dynamics would include concrete consideration of how discourse on medicine, unfolding of natural disasters, and industrial accidents are events that demand an interdisciplinary approach and multidisciplinary method that question the very role of sociality, humanity and what is really scientific and technologically appropriate in what is rationalized as a local and global context.


Analog Circuits (3-0-3-4.5): The course aims to cover topics of clipping, clamping, rectifying circuits, transistor amplifiers - DC biasing and bias stability; small-signal equivalent circuits; DC and small-signal analyses; high frequency response; step response, rise and fall times, speed concepts in frequency and time domains, integrated circuit amplifiers - single-stage, differential, and multi-stage, fundamentals of digital inverter at the transistor level, inductive loads and tuned amplifiers, feedback concepts and stability. A discussion on details of diode circuits as examples of simple non-linear circuits would be discussed in the course.

Analog Communication and Transmission Line Theory (3-0-2-4): This course aims to cover Introduction to communication systems and review of Signals and Systems - history and evolution of communication systems, review of signals and spectra, time and frequency relations, response of LTI systems, transfer functions, frequency response, band-limited signals signal distortion in transmission, filters, Hilbert transforms, correlation and spectral density functions; Linear CW Modulation-Band pass signals and systems, AM, DSB, signals and spectra, Product modulators, Square law modulators, Switched modulators, Envelope detection, SSB, VSB signals and spectra, generation and synchronous detection, QAM; Angle Modulation - Phase and frequency modulation, Narrow band PM and FM, single Tone and multi-tone modulations, Transmission bandwidth, Generation and detection of FM and PM signals, De-emphasis and pre-emphasis filtering; Basic Transmission Line Theory - Types of two-conductor transmission lines, Circuit model of uniform transmission line, Transients on a transmission line, Sinusoidal excitation of uniform transmission lines, Lossless, Low-loss and lossy transmission lines, Terminated transmission lines, Reflection coefficients and SWR of lines terminated in short circuit, open circuit, pure reactance, pure resistance and complex impedance, Power flow along transmission lines, Return loss and reflection losses; and Advance Transmission line Theory-Impedance transformation, Examples of impedance transformation using half-wavelength and quarter-wavelength lines, Basics of Smith chart, Smith chart computations, Matching transmission lines with loads using stubs, Transmission line analogy with plane wave reflection, non-uniform transmission lines.

Systems Software (3-0-3-4.5): This course aims to provide a unified system programmer perspective of an Operating System and Computer Networks as computing and Communication service as represented by a programming interface. The course aims to build competence in building stand-alone and distributed applications using system level API. Topics to be covered include computing as service, set of services as an Application Programming Interface (API), components of an API, Operating system as an API engine, process as an abstraction, OS structures/modules to support memory, storage and process services, Inter process communication (IPC) services; Networks as a distributed computing service infrastructure. Set of services for distributed infrastructure, Overview of network system software, IP, TCP, Link layer issues, Software support needed to provide a computing abstraction, Socket service abstraction. At the end of the course, student will be able to see the relationship between the stand-alone system software (traditional OS) and network software (distributed OS or network protocol suite) and have practical hands-on experience in designing and implementing stand-alone and networked software using low-level system constructs.

Probability, Statistics and Information Theory (3-1-0-4): This course aims to cover Mathematical statistics-population, sample space, events, expectation and higher order moments, characteristic functions-mean and standard deviation, correlation and regression, estimators and their properties, types of error in hypothesis testing, power of a test, goodness of fit, Student-t and chi-squared distribution, sufficient statistic and MLEs, limit theorems and convergence of random variables; Probability theory-axiomatic probability, conditional probability and independence, random variables, distribution function, probability mass and density function, discrete and continuous probability distributions-binomial, Poisson, geometric, uniform, normal, exponential, joint distribution, law of large numbers, central limit theorem, Markov and Chebyshev's inequalities: and Information theory-notion of information, concept of entropy, conditional and joint entropies, principle of maximum entropy, Shannon's theorems and their applications.

Engineered Materials (3-0-0-3): Engineered materials are a new class of systems comprising a variety of materials. The course aims to introduce the principles and various functional properties exhibited by materials at the nano, micro and meso scales. Study includes thermodynamics, structural, optical, electronic and mechanical properties of materials; principles underlining each property and class; the effect of microstructure on each of the properties; Electronic and mechanical properties of materials structure and properties of metals, ceramics, amorphous, and electronic materials.

Environmental Studies (2-0-0-2): This course aims to cover issues relating to environment, ecology and conservation, politics and economics of nature, progress of development, role of technology, knowledge of nature and science of environment; landscape at large, water bodies, herbal garden, issues of waste, lack of wildlife.


Embedded Hardware Design (3-0-3-4.5): This course aims to cover computing devices, associated peripherals and networks along with high level software(C) and hardware language (Verilog HDL) which are used in the design of a modern day embedded system. Since peripherals and networks are independent of the computing device used, the course would first only consider the Microcontroller as a computing device and build up the concept of peripherals and networks around it. Standard peripherals like Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters, Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter, Interrupt Controller, Programmable Peripheral Interface, Real Time Clock will be covered. Different communication standards and protocols such as RS 232, RS 485, I2C, Controller Area Network, Input output devices like keyboard, keypad and LCD would be discussed. Multitudes of computing devices that are used in an embedded system such as General Purpose Processors, Micro controllers, Digital Signal Processors, Programmable Logic Devices, custom designed Application Specific chips will be introduced. The course will focus on the architecture and C programming using the AVR microcontroller followed by digital circuit design using Hardware Description Language (Verilog) using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for prototyping.

Digital Communications (3-0-3-4.5): The course aims to cover introduction to digital communication systems and digitization of analog signals-analog versus digital communications, overview of digital communication based system, review of sampling theorem, ideal and practical sampling, aliasing, analog signal reconstruction from discrete-time samples, pulse code modulation (PCM): uniform and non-uniform quantization and companding, and Differential PCM; Digital modulation-signal space concepts: representation of signals as vectors and Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization. Signal representation and constellations: amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), rectangular and non-rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and frequency shift keying (FSK). Design for bandlimited channels: power-bandwidth tradeoff and Nyquist criterion for ISI avoidance; Digital demodulation and detection - optimal demodulation in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN): maximum-likelihood (ML) decision rule and minimum probability error (MEP) decision rule. Realization of optimal receiver using matched filters. Performance analysis of ML reception and link-budget analysis; and Elements of Information theory-notion of channel capacity, capacity of discrete-time AWGN channel: sphere packing interpretation, capacity of band-limited AWGN channel, power-bandwidth tradeoff in bandlimited AWGN channel, and design implications of Shannon limits.

Computer Networks (3-0-3-4.5): The course aims to cover the evolution of computer and communication networks and the design principles of modern network architectures. Primary focus is on system level concepts and engineering design and implementation issues. Link layer, Network Layer and Transport layer are studied in detail. At the end of the course, a student should be able to compare network technologies and use the appropriate tools to design and implement network systems. The associated laboratory component is designed to expose students to basic networking hardware and the simulation tools for the analysis of traffic and network protocols.

Database Management Systems (3-0-3-4.5): In this course students are taught the fundamental concepts of database management systems, including database architecture, the relational model, SQL, functional dependencies, normalization, security, issues in transaction management and the client-server architecture. Other closely related topics, such as query implementation, data warehousing and mining, and decision support systems are also introduced. In the laboratory, students are expected to complete a project using the fundamentals of DBMS design process discussed in class.

Principles of Economics (3-0-0-3): This course provides students to understand what is Economics, the problems of Economic Organisation, what, how and for whom to produce, Demand and Supply, elasticity of demand and supply, consumer behavior and demand, theory of production, analysis of cost, overview of the market structure and various types of markets, perfectly competitive market, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic markets. It also emphasizes on aggregate demand and aggregate supply, determination of national income, consumption, saving and investment, business cycle and aggregate demand, balance of international payment, International Monetary Systems, International Institutions, problems of Indian Economy, Mixed Economy and Welfare State, Planning, Liberalisation, India as a Knowledge-Based Economy.


Software Engineering (3-0-3-4.5): The course introduces students to the basic principles and techniques of software engineering. A student of this course should be able to understand the philosophy and justification for a software engineering approach to software development, and appreciate that software development is an engineering discipline which is highly process focused. The course would equip the student with the knowledge that would assist in making improvements in the software process in general and in the personal software development process in particular.