## Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech.) in Electronics and VLSI Design (EVD)

DA-IICT launched the unique four-year B. Tech in Electronics and VLSI Design (EVD) from the Academic Year 2023-24 with an objective to create industry ready undergraduate manpower for VLSI industry. The main objective of the BTech (EVD) program is to equip students with necessary core competency to succeed long-term in engineering/ entrepreneurship careers and preparing them for higher studies and research as career options. The curriculum offers a strong foundation in the first two years and then provides the student opportunity to specialise in VLSI System Design and Electronics System Design that trains them both the technical and entrepreneurial skills needed to become a leader in this industry.

Students will learn to use industry ~ standard software such as Cadence, Synopsys, OrCad, MATLAB, Xilinx, etc. and hardware boards viz. FPGA, CPLD, etc. to design Integrated Circuits. For some students, the student design project may culminate as a scientific paper that will help immensely in their career and will open up future study options in their particular field of specialization. Students will also gain direct industry experience through internships. The rural internship during their course will enable the students to appreciate the socio ~ cultural aspect of their course. The program includes compulsory Summer Research Internships to be taken up at various research organizations within and abroad.

The program brochure can be found **here**.

### Program Outcomes (POs)

PO No. | Program Outcomes |
---|---|

PO1 | Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems. |

PO2 | Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences |

PO3 | Design/development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations. |

PO4 | Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions. |

PO5 | Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations. |

PO6 | The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice. |

PO7 | Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable development. |

PO8 | Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice. |

PO9 | Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings. |

PO10 | Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions. |

PO11 | Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments. |

PO12 | Life-long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change. |

### The Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs) set the following goal:

After the successful completion of the BTech (EVD) program, students will have:

PSO No. | Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs) |
---|---|

PSO1 | To apply the concepts of Electronics, VLSI Systems and Design industrial applications. |

PSO2 | Develop system solutions involving both hardware and software modules. |

PSO3 | To work as a socially responsible professional by applying EVD technology in real-world scenarios and applications. |

The curriculum of the program maintains a balance between theory with practice, ensuring the students to gain relevant skills as per the requirement of the industry. The first two years will focus on the basics, leading to strong foundations in humanities, mathematics, logical reasoning, physics, programming skills and basic engineering. In the 3rd and 4th year, the students will have freedom to choose from a wide range of electives. The course structure of the curriculum is broadly classified into four categories.

### Foundation or Core Courses

Set of compulsory courses taken by every student for first six semesters. These courses are from the technical areas of Electronics, VLSI Systems and Design, as well as courses in Humanities, Mathematics and Basic Sciences.

### Specialization Elective Courses

These courses provide technical depth in Electronics Systems Design and VLSI Design pathways. Students will have options to specialize in the areas based on their interest.

### Open Elective Courses

Electives from any of the following from other programs qualify as an Open elective.

- ICT Electives
- Technical Electives
- MnC Electives
- Humanities and Social Sciences Electives
- Science Electives

### Provision of MOOC courses as electives

A student may be allowed to take relevant MOOC courses that can qualify as electives, subject to prior consent of a faculty mentor assigned by Dean-Academics. Maximum two such courses may be allowed to a student throughout the program and only one such course in a semester will be allowed.

### Rural Internship

A unique feature of the program is the mandatory rural internship, which is expected to give the student a feel of his/her social milieu and is typically carried out with an NGO and Govt. organizations. The duration of the rural internship is 4 weeks and is carried out in the Winter break after the third semester. This course is graded as Pass/Fail.

### Research/Industrial Internship

The student is required to do a 6-8 weeks industrial/research internship, which is offered in the summer break after the 6th semester. The student has a choice of taking an industrial internship or a research internship depending on his/her career goals.

Research internship is designed to train the students to carry out research and to expose them to research environment. The student learns how to carry out independent research and how to write a research report. This internship can be done on-campus or externally at other R&D organizations and universities.

Industrial internship is designed to train the students to the working environment in industry. Through this training the student learns about corporate culture. The internship enables the students to learn about the team work, to build inter-personal dynamics and behaviour, and to gain experience in real life problems. This course is graded as Pass/Fail.

### BTech Project (BTP)

The BTP work can be a continuation of the work done during previous internships. In the BTech project (BTP) the student undertakes a problem of interest, identifies the issues involved, and develops techniques to address the issues. The student can undertake a theoretical study and/or experimental or developmental work. The work can be carried out individually or in groups under the supervision of faculty.

A student has option to do an Industrial Internship in the 8th semester in the off-campus mode. Industrial internship is to be done at an approved industry site with a designated industry mentor and a well specified project. This option is suitable for those students who want to gain an early industry experience to better prepare them as an industry professional. The Placement office will provide assistance in identifying industry for off-campus internships. The BTP and Internship are graded with letter grades on a 10-point scale.

### Co-curricular Activities and Exploration Project

Co-curricular activities are non-class activities like sports, cultural and technical club activities. These courses run over the first four semesters and are graded Pass/Fail.

Exploration projects allow students to explore their surroundings to identify interesting problems that admit a design based and/or hardware based solution. Students are expected to work in groups of 8 to 10 under a faculty mentor over two semesters - second and third semester. This course will be graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

### Credit Structure

The BTech program is designed to operate on a semester-based credit system with a 10-point scale. Each course is associated with a fixed number of credits. Credits are awarded on an L-T-P-C system (C=L+T+P/2) per semester, that is, the number of contact hours for Lectures (L), Tutorials (T) and Practical (P) in a week. Nominally, since a semester has around 14 weeks of classes, therefore, a 3-credit lecture course would amount to approximately 40 lecture hours in a semester.

Grade in 10 point scale

AA | AB | BB | BC | CC | CD | DD | DE | F | I/W |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

10 | 9 | 8 | 7 | 6 | 5 | 4 | 3 | 0 | Incomplete/Withdrawn |

In the first year, students will develop foundational knowledge in basic Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, Humanities and Social Science, exploration projects and co-curricular activities.

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | ED111 | Engineering Mathematics I | Core | 3-1-0-4 |

1 | IT112 | Introduction to Programming | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

1 | IT113 | Programming Lab | Core | 0-0-2-1 |

1 | EL111 | Basic Electronic Circuits | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

1 | ED112 | Engineering Physics | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

1 | PC110 | Language and Literature | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

1 | CO111 | Co-Curricular Activities I | 0-0-2-1 | |

Total Credits |
15-1-8-20 |

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

2 | ED121 | Engineering Mathematics II | Core | 3-1-0-4 |

2 | IC121 | Digital Logic and Computer Organization | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

2 | IT205 | Data Structures | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

2 | IT206 | Data Structure Lab using OOP | Core | 1-0-2-2 |

2 | SC217 | Electromagnetic Theory | Core | 3-1-0-4 |

2 | HM106 | Approaches to Indian Society | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

2 | PC125 | Exploration Project I | Core | 0-1-0-1 |

2 | CO121 | Co-Curricular Activities II | 0-0-2-1 | |

Total Credits |
16-3-6-22 |

In the second year, students will develop knowledge on Advanced Circuits, Solid State Devices, Digital Signal Processing, Communications and VLSI Design. The Electronic Design Lab will enable the students to learn the practical aspects of measurement techniques and different software tools. A unique and state of the art design project is introduced where the student will get an opportunity to work towards designing an integrated circuit (or 'chip') from specification to fabrication. The student will also get an opportunity to delve into the realms of product design and entrepreneurship along with exploration projects. During the fourth Semester, two specialization routes are offered to the student.

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

3 | ED211 | Engineering Mathematics III | Core | 3-1-0-4 |

3 | ED212 | Solid State Devices | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

3 | ED213 | Signal Processing and Control Systems | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

3 | ED214 | Electronic Design Lab | Core | 1-1-4-4 |

3 | HM216 | Science, Technology and Society | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

3 | PC222 | Exploration Project II | Core | 0-0-2-1 |

3 | CO211 | Co-Curricular Activities III | 0-0-2-1 | |

Total Credits |
13-2-12-21 |
|||

ED222 | RURAL INTERNSHIP (4 weeks) |
For all | 0-0-6-3 |

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

4 | EL203 | Embedded Hardware Design | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

4 | ED221 | Digital IC Design and Tape out | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

4 | ED222 | Digital IC Design and Tape out LAB | Core | 0-0-4-2 |

4 | ED222 | Analog Electronics | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

4 | ED223 | Entrepreneurship and Product Design | Core | 1-0-4-3 |

4 | ED325 | Specialization Elective-1 | Elective | 3-0-0-3 |

4 | CO221 | Co-Curricular Activities IV | 0-0-2-1 | |

Total Credits |
13-0-14-20 |

During this year, students will be able to pick up specialised electives and will work on an individual project. Students can also work on some of the existing projects, e.g. handheld device with applications in IoT, robotics, healthcare and environment.

The student will also be able to choose from a wide range of innovative interdisciplinary modules (Open electives). In the 6th semester, the student will have the unique experience of testing the chip that he/she had designed earlier. Additionally, the student will have options to be encouraged in a research institute or industry for a period of 8 weeks during the summer to design and/or fabricate a device.

The Individual Project is to be taken in Sem. 5 and Sem. 6, summing upto a total of 9 credits. Students can work with a faculty mentor at DA-IICT and will be encouraged to explore different System Design Projects while using various software tools and hardware platforms.

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

5 | ED311 | Digital Signal Processing Hardware | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

5 | ED312 | VLSI Design | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

5 | ED313 | VLSI Design LAB | Core | 0-0-4-2 |

5 | - | Open Elective – 1 | Elective | 3-0-0/2-3/4 |

5 | ED326 | Specialization Elective - 2 | Elective | 3-0-2-4 |

5 | HM116 | Principles of Economics | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

5 | ED319 | Individual Project 1 | Core/Project | 0-0-6-3 |

Total Credits |
15-0-14/16-22/23 |

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

6 | MC226 | Environmental Science | Core | 3-0-0-3 |

6 | - | Open Elective – 2 | Elective | 3-0-0/2-3/4 |

6 | ED322 | VLSI Testing and Validation | Core | 3-0-2-4 |

6 | ED327 | Specialization Elective – 3 | Elective | 2-0-4-4 |

6 | ED320, ED321 | Individual Project – 2 and 3 | Core/Project | 0-0-12-6 |

Total Credits |
11-0-18/20-20/21 |
|||

ED333 | SUMMER RESEARCH INTERNSHIP OR INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP (8 weeks) |
For all | 0-1-6-4 |

In this year, students will have an opportunity to put their skills into practice and experience working for an industry or an academic advisor. A unique feature that students will be engaged in to group design project. The specialization modules will bring the flavour of MEMS Technology and Applications, IoT Technology and Applications, Robotics-AI and Security.

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

7 | ED425 | Specialization Elective – 4 | Elective | 3-0-2-4 |

7 | ED426 | Specialization Elective – 5 | Elective | 3-0-2-4 |

7 | - | Open Elective – 3 | Elective | 3-0-0/2-3/4 |

7 | ED411 | Group Project | Core/Project | 0-0-16-8 |

Total Credits |
9-0-20/22-19/20 |

Sem. | Course Code | Course Name | Type | L-T-P-C |
---|---|---|---|---|

8 | ED444 |
BTP / Internship |
Project / Internship For all |
0-3-18-12 |

Total Credits |
0-3-18-12 |

The curriculum accommodates 163 credits, out of which 144 credits for courses and 19 credits for internships and final semester project/internship work. Out of the 144 required coursework credits, 99 credits are allocated to compulsory courses (Foundation courses) and 28 credits are allocated to Electives (19 credits are allocated to Specialization electives and 9 credits to Open electives) and 17 credits to Individual and Group projects, which the student can pursue according to his/her inclination and interest.

## Detailed Course Structures

### ED111 Engineering Mathematics I (3-1-0-4)

__Course Objective:__ The math courses lay the mathematical foundation for all the proposed courses.

**Course Contents:**

- Differential equations: Newton's method for roots; partial differentiation, maxima, logarithmic differentiation; Taylor and Maclaurin series, Maxima, Minima, ; Taylor and Maclaurin series, solution of first order ODEs, linear inhomogeneous second order ODEs, free and forced oscillators.
- Integration: definition of integral; standard integrals; substitution; integration by parts; numerical integration, substitution; applications to centroids, volumes, double and triple integrals, rational functions; improper integrals.
- Partial differential equations, Second order linear PDE: Diffusion equations
- Complex Numbers: Representation Polar, Euler’s, Exponential
- Vectors, Triple Products, Differentiation and Integration of Vectors, Vector Equations of Lines and Planes, Vector Calculus
- Matrix algebra: Add, Sub, Multi of Matrices, determinants, rank, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors and Eigen Functions.
- Numerical Methods and Analysis, FEM, FDTD

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Glyn James ~ Modern Engineering Mathematics (Pearson, 2015)
- Kreyzig ~ E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wiley)

### IT112 Introduction to Programming (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course aims to introduce problem solving techniques using C programming to help the students to develop analytical and logical skills. The course starts with basic concepts of computer programming and follows in building up knowledge in program development, deployment and testing to solve computational problems. The course also provides visualization of memory and time requirements for solving problems using C programming language. The coverage of this course includes problem solving techniques, flow charts, algorithms development, pseudo codes, and implementation of algorithms using C programming.

**Course Contents:**

- Primitive data types,
- Control Structures,
- Structured Programming,
- Arrays, Strings, Functions, and Pointers including memory allocation and deallocation efficiently.
- Tools: Editors, compilers, office automation, imaging, etc.
- Debugging, structures, unions, file handling.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- C How to Program ~ Deitel and Deitel (PHI, 2010)
- C Programming Language ~ Keningham and Ritchie (PHI, 1998)
- Let Us C ~ Y Kanetkar (BPB, 2013)

### IT113 Programming Lab (0-0-2-1)

__Course Objective:__ This course aims to provide hands-on practical knowledge on C programming on topics, exercises and use cases discussed in the course, Introduction to Programming.

**Course Contents:**

This is a lab based course where problem solving approaches such as recursive, iterative, inductive, top-down, bottom-up and backtracking is practiced that should give adequate emphasis for building up logical and analytical skills while solving real life problems using mentioned broad concepts. At the end of the course, students will be able to develop logical and analytical ability to perceive and solve computational problems; to write and test computer programs developed with C programming language; and to work effectively with various computer software tools like editors, compilers, office automation, imaging, etc. debugging, structures, unions, file handling.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- C How to Program ~ Deitel and Deitel (PHI, 2010)
- C Programming Language ~ Keningham and Ritchie (PHI, 1998)
- Let Us C ~ Y Kanetkar (BPB, 2013)

### EL111 Basic Electronic Circuits (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ The objective of this course is to provide students the fundamental idea of electronic circuits and components. The course will enable students with the skills of working with different circuit elements like resistor, capacitor, inductor, diode, transistor, operational amplifier. The content is designed to help students not only to analyze a circuit but also to design an electronic circuit with necessary components.

**Course Contents:**

- Time Invariant Systems. Passive and Active Circuits. Transducers. Ideal Switch and Step Signal.
- Ideal Voltage and Current sources. Controlled sources VCVS, VCCS, CCVS and CCCS. DC~ Resistive Circuit Analysis, KCL, KVL, Node and Loop Equations solving to find V and I.
- Use of Superposition theorem. Load resistance. Series and Parallel Combinations. Wheatstone Bridge and Basic Measurements with Transducers. Star ~ Delta transformations, Potentiometers.
- Determinants and Cramer's rule for solving mesh or loop equations. Voltage divider, Current Divider. Thevenin and Norton’s theorems.
- Idea for Integrated Circuits and VLSI. Op ~ Amps. Ideal Op ~ Amps. Idea of Amplifiers. Inverting and noninverting Amplifiers with Resistors. Voltage Amplifiers with multiple Op ~ Amps and Resistors,
- Linear Circuits with Op ~ Amps. Difference Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amp etc.
- Circuits with Resistors and Op ~ Amps. Applications.
- AC Signals. Step, Pulsed/Square wave signals. Periodic signals, Average and RMS values. Phase of a Sinusoid, Phase lag and lead. Phasors. Complex numbers and variable basics. Euler’s formula.
- Arithmetic operations with phasors, KVL, KCL and Thevenin for ac inputs, Idea of Impedance.
- Solution of ODE without Laplace Transform, Rise time of RC. Transient and steady state response.
- RC circuits with switches, LR circuit analysis with unit step input and switches. Time Constant and Rise time of LR. Transient and steady state response of first order. LR circuits with Switches – Current charging and dissipating. RLC circuits with switches – transients and steady state.
- LR Circuit with sinusoidal inputs, Frequency Response. Passive R~C Low Pass Filters, High Pass filters. Integrators and differentiators, Active filters using Op Amps (2nd order only).
- Circuits with impedances and op amps. Ideal Transformers. Current, Applications of transformers.

**Resources & Textbooks: **

- J. O'Malley, Theory and Problems of Basic Circuit Analysis, McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition
- J. Svoboda and R. Dorf, Introduction to Electric Circuits, 9th Edition, Wiley
- Other webpages and videos available online

### ED112 Engineering Physics (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ Engineering Physics covers the basic mathematics and physics of oscillatory and wave phenomena. By the end of the course, students should be able to explain why oscillations appear in many near equilibrium systems, the various mathematical properties of those oscillations in various contexts, how oscillations and waves are related, and the basic mathematical description and properties of a wave. They will understand the interplay of oscillations in electronic and mechanical circuits and systems. This course also provides the students with a broad understanding of the physical principles of the oscillations, to help them develop critical thinking and quantitative reasoning skills, to empower them to think creatively and critically about scientific problems and experiments.

**Course Contents:**

- Conservation of Energy and Momenta, Potential and Kinetic Energy, Work, Force.
- Simple Pendulum, Simple harmonic motion and Oscillation, Amplitude, frequency, phase and period of oscillations. Spring-mass system.
- Spring-Mass-Damper system, Damped Oscillation, Ordinary Differential Equation basics.
- Review of R, L, C in terms of ODEs. Ohm’s Law and I-V relations.
- First order linear ODEs using integrating factors for various forcing functions, esp. step and sinusoidal inputs. Time constants, Transient and Steady-state responses.
- Laplace transform (one sided). Properties of LT. Inverse LT using table lookup. Solution of 1st order ODEs using LT.
- Second order ODEs using LT. Over-critical- and under-damped responses with step inputs.
- Oscillations, Waves. Amplitude, phase, frequency, wavelength, velocity of waves.
- Waves in transmission lines, Lossless transmission lines, telegraphist’s equations, characteristic impedance and idea of reflection Solution of the lossless case – wave equation.
- Modern physics, Bohr theory of atoms, Waveparticle duality, Energy and momentum ideas with fundamental particles, De Broglie’s idea.
- Ideas of quantum mechanics, Uncertainty principle, Basic idea of probability.
- Basic postulates of quantum mechanics, Schroedinger’s equation, Idea of eigenvalue problems in ODEs, idea of the state of a particle.
- Harmonic oscillator problem, states, energy levels, series solution of ODEs, comparison with pendulum and RLC circuits.

### PC110 Language and Literature (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course is designed to introduce students to the study of the English language and literature at the undergraduate level. It follows a two ~ pronged approach, first, teaching the English language through literature; secondly, introducing the students to the world of literature and teaching them strategies of reading and comprehending.

**Course Contents:**

Literature is known to widen readers’ perspective by sharpening critical thinking and enhancing emotional response simultaneously. This course harnesses literature to sensitize the students on the debates of culture, gender, race and class. The students are exposed to a wide variety of texts and are asked to engage with them in multiple ways through class discussions, written analysis, presentations, etc. Reading diverse texts familiarizes students with the features and structures of the written language. In addition to the essential linguistic competencies, the students will acquire the sensibility to appreciate nuances of the language. The activities are centered around reading, speaking, critical thinking and writing.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

The texts for the classes are selected by the instructor from a wide range of short stories, poetry, essays, folktales, art works, TED talks, videos, films, etc. The selected literary readings are approachable as well as complex enough to challenge the students. Some of these readings are chosen to further discussions on the intersections of class, gender, race and other issues that are crucial to the understanding of the lived human experiences.

### CO111 Co Curricular Activities I (0-0-2-1)

__Course Objective:__ This is an attempt to bring co-curricular activities within the ambit of the curriculum. It is envisaged that students will be able to internalize the technological perspective in an informal setting and make the campus more vibrant through these courses. The students are free to choose sports or participate in club activities through these courses.

### EVD 121 Engineering Mathematics II (3-1-0-4)

__Course Objective:__ The course introduces students to the basics of probability and statistics. Probability theory has wide scale applications in mathematics, engineering and finance. The student is introduced to the axiomatic way of looking at probability invented by Kolmogorov. The different types of random variables (both, discrete and continuous) are introduced with context and examples. The student learns the limit theorems such as the central limit theorem with their applications. The course ends with some introductory statistics in the form of estimation and regression. The course has mathematical rigor but at the same time practical examples as well as an experimental approach where the students can simulate probabilistic situations on a computer is encouraged.

**Course Contents:**

*Probability:* Sample Space, Events, Axioms of Probability, Conditional Probabilities, Independence of Events, Bayes' Theorem, Random Variables, Types of Random Variables, Jointly Distributed Random Variables, Expectation, Variance, Sums of Random Variables, Covariance, Markov's and Chebyshev's Inequality, Law of Large numbers, Special Random Variables: Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Uniform, Normal, Exponential, Chi~Square, Distribution, Sample Mean, Central Limit Theorem, Sample Variance.

*Statistics: *Parameter Estimation: maximum likelihood estimators, interval estimates, Hypothesis Testing: Significance Level, Mean and Variance of Normal Population, Hypothesis Testing: Mean of Poisson Distribution, Hypothesis testing in Bernoulli populations, Regression, least square estimators, distribution of estimators, Goodness of fit tests.

*Information Theory:* Notion of information, entropy, joint entropy, conditional entropy, relative entropy, mutual information, chain rules, Data Compression, Kraft inequality, Optimal codes, Huffman codes, Channel capacity, Channel Coding Theorem, Hamming Codes.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Introductory Statistics, Sheldon Ross, Elsevier
- Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists by Sheldon Ross, Fourth Edition
- Elements of Information Theory by Thomas Cover and Joy Thomas, Second Edition.

### IC121 Digital Logic & Computer Organization (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course provides an introduction to the design and implementation of digital circuits and microprocessors. Topics include transistor network design, Boolean algebra, combinational circuits, sequential circuits, finite state machine design, processor pipelines, and memory hierarchy. Design methodology using both discrete components and hardware description languages is covered in the course.

**Course Contents:**

- Combinational Circuits; Small and Large Designs, Logic Expressions, Sum of Product Expression and Product of Sum Expression, Canonical Expression, Min Terms, Max ~ Terms, Logic Minimization, Karnaugh Map, K ~ Map Minimization, Logic Minimization Algorithm, Minimization Software
- Other Gates, Buffer, Tri ~ State Buffer, Full Adder, Multiplexer, Decoder, Encoder, Circuit Timing Diagram, Signal Propagation Delay, Fan ~ In and Fan ~ Out, Programmable Logic Devices, Design Flow, Hardware Description Languages, Floating Point Standard
- Sequential Circuits: Core Modules, Latches, Flip ~ flops, Registers, HDL Models, FSM, Single Cycle, Multicycle, Pipelining, Multipliers
- Memory: Types, Design Example of a Multiprocessor Memory Architecture, HDL Model
- Instruction Set Architecture: Types of Instruction Set Architecture, Design Example, Advanced Processor Architectures
- Computer Architecture: Interconnection, Memory Controller, I/O Peripheral Devices, Controlling and Interfacing I/O Devices, Data transfer Mechanisms, Interrupts, Design Example: Interrupt Handling CPU, Computer Architecture, Security

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Digital Design, M Mano and M Ciletti, Pearson
- Digital Design and Computer Architecture, Harris and Harris, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann

### IT205 Data Structures (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ The course aims to introduce the concept of data structures, and their indispensability in implementing algorithms and also how they aid in improving performance. An extensive coverage of the well-known and important data structures and routines/algorithms associated with them will be covered. Basic algorithms as well as some more advanced ones demonstrating the use of data structures are covered. The course will also cover the analysis of the performance of data structures and algorithms, in terms of the time and space resources they consume.

**Course Contents:**

- Representation of data on a computer, data types, array and linked list representations, ways of representing programs and associated data on computers. Notion of the running time of an algorithm, recurrences, parameters of performance.
- Dictionary operations: Find, Min, Max, Successor, Predecessor, Insert, Delete
- List Data: Stacks, Cues, Variants, Implementations using Arrays and Linked Lists, Hashing
- Comparison ~ Based Sorting Algorithms, Lower Bounds for Comparison-Based Sorting Algorithms, Best Case, Worst Case and Average Case, Running Times, Quicksort, Heap Sort, Insertion Sort, Bubble Sort, etc.
- Maximum & Minimum Elements of a Set, Finding Median, Searching for an Element of a Given Rank, Ranks of a Subset of Elements, Maintaining Rank Information for a Dynamic Set.
- Trees: Heaps, Binary Search Trees, Height of BST, Balanced BST, Red-Black Trees, AVL Trees, 2, 3, 4-Trees, B Trees
- Graphs: Representation using Adjacency Matrices and Adjacency Lists, Graph Searching Algorithms, BFS and DFS.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Data Structures & Algorithms - Aho, Hopcroft and Ullman (Addison Wesley)

### IT206 Data Structures Lab using OOP (1-0-2-2)

__Course Objective:__ Aim of this course is to provide practical exposure to different data structures and algorithms concepts that are taught in the course “IT205 ~ Data Structures”. The preferred programming language is C++.

**Course Contents:**

Object-Oriented Programming, Concepts to be taught in the lectures, OOP Based Implementation Strategies for the data structures taught in the theory course will also be discussed here.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Data Structures & Algorithms in C++ ~ Goodrich, Tamassia & Goldberg (Wiley, 2011 )
- Other Materials or References will be provided in due course in the lab.

### SC217 Electromagnetic Theory (3-1-0-4)

__Course Objective:__ The course is targeted at students of engineering who want to understand medium and its response to a signal. Electromagnetic waves are the simplest signal, its propagation, energy associated with such waves and the techniques to understand its behavior in different media, are what are under the scope of this course.

**Course Contents:**

- Introduction to Vector Calculus: Vector Algebra, Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus, Curvilinear Coordinates
- Electrostatics: Coulomb’s Law, Charge Distibution, Fields, Gauss Law, Electrostatic Potential, Work, Energy, Conductors & Capacitance, Laplace-Poisson Equation: Boundary Value Problems, Method of Images, Electrostatics of Dielectrics: Polarization, Electric Displacement, Linear Dielectrics
- Magneto Statics: Lorentz Force Law, Motion of Charged Particles, Electric Currents: Continuity Equation, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere’s Law, Vector Potential, Magnetic Multipoles, Magnetic Field in Matter: Magnetization, Auxiliary Field, Boundary Conditions
- Introduction to Electrodynamics: Ohm’s Law & Electromotive Force, Faraday’s Law, Inductance, Energy in Magnetic Fields, Maxwell’s Equations, Properties of Electromagnetic Waves

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- David J. Griffiths - Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd Edition, PHI, 2012)
- Matthew N.O.Sadiku - Elements of Electromagnetics (3rd Edition, Oxford University Press Edition, 2001 )
- Electromagnetics, J. A. Edminister, Schaum’s Outlines, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
- Engineering Electromagnetics, 7th Ed.William H.Hayt, JR and John A. Buck, McGraw-Hil,l 2006
- Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics, 1st Ed. David K. Cheng, Prentice Hall, 1992

### HM106 Approaches to Indian Society (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course aims to construct a comparative framework for the understanding of different cultures with particular reference to social organization, politics, religion and symbolism illustrated with various ethnographic examples.

**Course Contents:**

The course is designed to provide with the means to apply basic anthropological understandings of society and culture in the analysis of meanings, actions and explanations that is the basis for communication in the society. Students will be expected to reflect upon the Indian society utilizing the readings and lectures.

**Resources & Textbooks:** The reading materials for this course will be selected by the instructor from a wide range of texts available in the resource center. The pointers for reading will be provided to students by the course instructor.

### PC125 Exploration Project I (0-1-0-1)

Exploration projects allow students to explore their surroundings to identify interesting problems that admit a design based and/or hardware based solution.

### CO121 Co Curricular Activities II (0-0-2-1)

__Course Objective:__ This is an attempt to bring co-curricular activities within the ambit of the curriculum. It is envisaged that students will be able to internalize the technological perspective in an informal setting and make the campus more vibrant through these courses. The students are free to choose sports or participate in club activities through these courses.

### ED211 Engineering Mathematics III (3-1-0-4)

__Course Objective:__ In this two-part course, the first part covers the Fourier, Z and Laplace transformations taught here are the foundation for signal processing related courses. The second part covers the network analysis useful for circuit theory.

**Course Contents:**

- Fourier Series: Orthogonality relations, Solutions to periodically forced ODEs.
- Fourier Transforms: Sine and cosine transform. Properties, Discrete Fourier transform.
- Laplace, Z transform
- Network Functions & Responses
- Graph Theory
- Filters

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Modern Engineering Mathematics. Glyn James, Pearson.
- Jeffrey A. Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists. Nelson.
- Kreyzig E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Wiley.
- Greenberg MD. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. CUP
- Mac. E. Van Valkenburg - Network Analysis (Pearson, 2019)

### ED212 Solid State Devices (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course introduces review of semiconductor devices, basic properties of semiconductors and their conduction process.

**Course Contents:**

- Solid State Physics and Semiconductors,
- PN Junctions, Solar Cell and Photodiodes
- BJT and MOSFETS
- LEDS and Laser Diodes

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Greg Parker (2004) - Introductory Semiconductor Device Physics. IOP.
- S. M. Sze - Semiconductor Devices: Physics & Technology (2nd Edition, Wiley, 2002)

### ED213 Signal Processing and Control Systems (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ To provide foundation of signal processing, communications and control courses.

**Course Contents:**

Signal Processing: This module introduces different types of signals and systems covering different signal properties such as periodicity, energy, power, etc., and different system properties such as linearity, time ~ invariance, causality, and stability. It discusses the methods to analyze signals with the help of the Fourier series and Fourier transform. It also elaborates on converting a continuous ~ time signal to a discrete ~ time signal using sampling. Further, Laplace and Z ~ transforms are used to analyze continuous and discrete ~ time systems, with an introduction to filters (low ~ pass, high ~ pass & band ~ pass).

Effect of harmonics on shape of a waveform, Square, triangular and sawtooth waves, effect of waveform symmetry on harmonics, Differentiation and integration

Analogue Modulation: AM, DSBSC and SSB; transmission band width, FM; Noise and distortion.

Digital Modulation: ASK, PSK, QPSK; constellation diagram, FSK, QAM, Pulse shaping, eye diagram, Demodulation and detection, Software defined radio

Control Systems Module:

- Linear Time Invariant Systems and Ordinary Differential Equations
- Transfer Functions, Poles, Zeroes and the Characteristic Equation
- Laplace Transform and its properties, including initial and final value theorem
- Open loop versus closed loop,Root Locus Analysis, Bode Plots, Gain and Phase Margin, Bandwidth, Nyquist Stability Criterion
- PI, PD and PID, Pole placement, Pole ~ zero cancellation

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- I. Otung (2001) ~ Communication Engineering Principles (Palgrave)
- Dorf R C & Bishop R H (5) ~ Modern Control Systems (Pearson Prentice Hall)
- Emanuel C. Ifeachor & Barrie W. Jervis ~ Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Approach (2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002)

### ED214 Electronic Design Lab (1-1-4-4)

__Course Objective:__ This module equips the students to learn different CAD, EDA tools & HDL for hardware and be conversant with the measuring instruments.

**Course Contents:**

- Effective use of laboratory equipment and Synthesis vs analysis
- Effective use of design resources, Cadence ICFB, Matlab, SPICE, ModelSim, Xilinx ISE
- Manufacturing techniques, fabless design, EMC
- Learn HDL, System Verilog

### HM216 Science, Technology, Society (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course is designed to encourage students to understand, explore and critically analyze ways in which science and technology work in diverse social contexts. It draws its basic approaches from Science and Technology studies (STS) which is a growing field of interdisciplinary studies that seeks to understand how science and technology shape human lives and livelihoods and how society and culture, in turn, shape the development of science and technology. This course, intends to introduce students to some of the key philosophical, sociological and historical approaches towards understanding the workings of science and technology in our times. By the end of the course, it is expected that students will have the conceptual tools and vocabulary to think about the meanings of science and technology in varied social, political and cultural contexts. They will be able to generate critical discussion around the impact of STS on their received ideas about science, and reflect upon their own professional goals and practice going forward.

**Course Contents:**

The course will be organized around four units, consisting of class lectures, discussion, and presentations. The first unit will map the broad field of STS. Students will be introduced to some of the historical and sociological approaches to the understanding of science and technology. They will be introduced to the ideas and works of some of the key thinkers and writers in this field and the nature of contemporary debate on the subjects raised by them. In these lectures we will explore basic questions about what modern science is, the relationship between science and technology, and the role of historical, sociological and anthropological studies of science and technology in helping us think about these questions.

Following this broad introduction to STS in Unit One, in Units Two and Three, students will be introduced to debates on science and technology in the Indian context. Class lectures and reading in Unit Two will focus on the structural impacts of colonialism, developmental planning and liberalization on the growth and development of Indian scientific and technological endeavors in different domains, especially public health. Unit Three will focus specifically on the lives and questions raised by women in the fields of science and technology in post liberalization India. Together, these units will allow us to analyze the contemporary moment, and explore frameworks that seek to make sense of it. In Unit Four, students will be encouraged to take up the theoretical questions raised in Units One to Three, and pursue a short research study as a Group Project. The focus this year will be on the gendered worlds of science and technology, where we will look into the different ways in which social relations shape these fields and their questions.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Sismondo, Sergio. An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies. 2nd ed. WileyBlackwell, 2010.
- Arnold, David. Science, Technology and Medicine in Colonial India. The New Cambridge History of India, Vol 3, No. 5. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

### PC222 Exploration Project I (0-0-2-1)

This is a follow up course of PC125.

### CO211 Co Curricular Activities III (0-0-2-1)

__Course Objective:__ This is an attempt to bring co-curricular activities within the ambit of the curriculum. It is envisaged that students will be able to internalize the technological perspective in an informal setting and make the campus more vibrant through these courses. The students are free to choose sports or participate in club activities through these courses.

### EL203 Embedded Hardware Design (j3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course aims to cover computing devices, associated peripherals and networks along with high level language and hardware language viz. Verilog HDL which are used in the design of a modern day embedded system. The objective of the “Embedded Hardware Design” course is to present to the student the computation devices, peripherals and networks along with software (Embedded C) and hardware description language (Verilog HDL), which are used for the development of modern technology in areas of embedded systems. Since peripherals and networks are independent of the computing device used, the course would first only consider the microcontroller as a computing device and build up the concept of peripherals and networks around it.

**Course Contents:**

Peripherals like Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters (ADC and DAC), Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART), Interrupt Controller, Programmable Peripheral Interface, Real~Time Clock are discussed.

Many computing devices that are used in an embedded system such as General Purpose Processors, Microcontrollers, Digital Signal Processors and Programmable Logic Devices are introduced. Different serial communication standards and protocols such as RS232, I2C, Controller~Area~Network along with input output devices such as keyboard, keypad and LCD are explained.

ARM Cortex-M class processor based microcontroller will be programmed for various applications using ‘C’ and ARM assembly language. Digital circuit design will be carried out using Verilog HDL and field programmable gate array (FPGA).

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis, Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, Wiley, Student edition, 2006.
- Sarah Harris and David Harris, Digital Design and Computer Architecture: ARM Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., United States, May 2015.
- Jonathan Walker Valvano, Embedded Systems: Introduction to Arm® Cortex™~M Microcontrollers, 5th Edition, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011.
- Samir Palnitkar, Digital Design using Verilog HDL, Prentice Hall; 2nd Edition, 2003.
- ARM System Developer’s Guide: Designing and Optimizing System Software 1st Edition (Designing and Optimizing System Software) Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2011.
- Peter R. Wilson, Design Recipes for FPGAs, Elsevier.

### ED221 Digital IC Design and Tape out (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This is an introductory course in VLSI Systems & Design.

**Course Contents:**

- IC Technologies, Layout, CMOS Processing, Design Rules
- Design rules, Stick Diagrams, Cell Design and Euler Paths ~
- System Design using Standard Cells, Pass Transistor Circuits, Latches and Flip ~ Flops
- PLAs, ROMs and RAMs, FPGA
- CMOS Inverter-Static and Dynamic
- Timing and clock synchronization, pipelining
- Wires; Coping with Interconnects
- Adders, Multipliers, data paths; timing issues
- Memory structures
- Emerging topics; Variability

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Digital Integrated Circuits ~ Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan & Borivoje Nikolic (2nd Edition, A Prentice ~ Hall, 2003)
- Digital VLSI Chip Design with Cadence and Synopsys CAD Tools ~ Eric Brunvand (Addison Wesley, 2009)
- CMOS VLSI Design: Circuits and Systems Perspective ~ N Weste & D. Harris (4th Edition, Addison Wesley, 2010)

### ED222 Digital IC Design and Tape out Lab (0-0-4-2)

This is lab course drives by ED221.

### ED223 Analog Electronics (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course introduces the characteristics and applications of semiconductor devices and circuits. Emphasis is placed on analysis, selection, biasing, and applications.

**Course Contents:**

- Diode Circuit Analysis: N ~ type and P ~ type materials, electron and hole currents, PN junction and biasing, Diode model, Clipper and clamper circuits, Zener diodes and LED
- Bipolar Junction Transistors: Transistor physics, NPN and PNP types, transistor ratings and specifications, transistor testing, etc.
- Transistor Amplifier Circuits: DC biasing, practical biasing circuits, BJT transistor amplifier configurations of common ~ emitter ~ collector, and ~base, equivalent circuit models, gain and impedance, troubleshooting common emitter amplifiers
- Feedback amplifier: Designing of negative feedback amplifiers, voltage series, voltage shunt, current series and current shunt, stability analysis, unity ~ gain frequency of amplifier, phase~margin, compensation in multi ~ stage amplifiers
- Differential Amplifiers
- Oscillators: Monostable, Astable and Bistable Mutivibrators

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Microelectronic Circuits ~ A. Sedra & K.C. Smith (5th Edition, Oxford University Press)
- Mac. E. Van Valkenburg ~ Network Analysis (Pearson, 2019)
- Analysis & Design; Design of Analog Integrated Circuits by P. R. Gray, P. Hurst, S. Lewis, R. Meyer; John Wiley.

### ED224 Entrepreneurship and Product Design (1-0-4-3)

__Course Objective:__

- The students will be taught a systematic approach to product design and development.
- The course highlights the methods for need identification, techniques for creative thinking, concept generation, concept selection, product architecture, aesthetics, ergonomics etc.
- The students will realize the design through models of using suitable materials

**Course Contents:**

*Module 1: Entrepreneurship*

- Introduction to Entrepreneurship

Introduction to the types of entrepreneurs, the most common categories of entrepreneurial ventures, and their key differentiating factors.

Understanding real world examples to see entrepreneurship in action in a wide variety of environments, from small businesses and social enterprises to large corporations.

- Developing the Opportunity

Opportunity analysis, need finding and market understanding, pitching, testing and prototyping.

*Module 2: Product Design*

- Introduction: Engineering design, types of design and products,
- Phases of product development, product and process cycles.
- Problem and Need Identification
- Conceptual Design

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- K. Otto ~ Product Design (Pearson Education, 2011, ISBN: 8177588214)
- U. Karl and S. Eppinger ~ Product Design and Development (McGraw ~ Hill Education, 2015, ISBN: 0078029066)
- C. A. Harper ~ Handbook of Materials for Product Design (McGraw ~ Hill)

### CO221 Co Curricular Activities IV (0-0-2-1)

__Course Objective:__ This is an attempt to bring co-curricular activities within the ambit of the curriculum. It is envisaged that students will be able to internalize the technological perspective in an informal setting and make the campus more vibrant through these courses. The students are free to choose sports or participate in club activities through these courses.

### ED311 Digital Signal Processing Hardware (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ Digital system design and of digital signal processing in the context of modern systems.

The design exercise is intended to synthesise both sides of the module content, so as to broaden and deepen understanding.

**Course Contents:**

- Characterisation of Stochastic Signals, Sampling and Quantisation, Source and channel coding
- Registers, ALU, SRAM, IO ports, Instruction Decoder, MIPS microprocessor on FPGA
- Testing combinational and sequential digital systems, Boundary Scan, Build ~ in self ~ test
- Software requirements. ModelSim, Altera Quartus, Laboratory space and equipment required. FPGA development kits

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- J F Wakerly ~ Digital Design: Principles and Practices (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006)
- M M Mano & M D Ciletti ~ Digital Design (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007)

### ED312 VLSI Design (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course introduces design fundamentals necessary to implement VLSI circuits.

**Course Contents:**

- CMOS Circuits: Timing issues, pipelining, resource sharing, metastability, synchronization,
- Semi & full custom designs: Placement & routing, Algorithms for Physical Design,
- IO pads & ESD
- Static & Dynamic CMOS Transistor, Ratioed circuits, domino logic, pass transistor, latches
- Memory Designs: SRAM, DRAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash, CAM, VLSI Layout of small digital systems using predefined cells using a layout editor, System Verilog, CAD Tools, HDL

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Wakerly J. F ~ Digital Design: Principles and Practices (4th Edition, Pearson, 2008)
- Neil H.E. Westte & David Money Harris ~ CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective (Addison Wesley, 4th Edition, 2011)

### ED312 VLSI Design (0-0-4-2)

This is lab course of ED312

### SC209 Environmental Science (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ Sensitize students on various issues and problems of the environment affecting our society. Allow students to do hands ~ on exercise on a few specific problems related to the environment. Enable the student to conceive ICT based solutions to environmental problems. With the broad understanding of the environment and underlying principles, the students should be able to relate the changes and challenges of environment related issues.

**Course Contents:**

- Introduction to Environmental science as a multidisciplinary subject – Definition, scope and importance. Biogeochemical cycle – Hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur cycles
- Ecosystems e.g. forest, agriculture, desert and aquatic (both, inland and marine), ecosystems
- Natural Resources ~ Energy, land, water and air resources ~ Conservation, development
- Biodiversity & Its Conservation ~ Biodiversity at global, national & local levels, threats & conservation of biodiversity
- Environmental Pollution ~ Air pollution, water pollution, marine pollution, climate change, global warming, climate feedback loops, environmental laws and statutes, anthropological and economic perspective of the environment, thermodynamic principles applied to the environment, modelling and simulation applied to environmental processes

**Textbooks & Reference Books:**

- Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses ~ E Bharucha (UGC Publications)

### HM116 Principles of Economics (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course provides students an understanding of what is economics, the problems of economic organizations, what, how and for whom to produce.

**Course Contents:**

Demand and supply, elasticity of demand and supply, consumer behavior and demand, theory of production, analysis of cost, overview of the market structure and various types of markets, perfectly competitive market, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic markets. It also emphasizes on aggregate demand and supply, determination of national income, consumption, saving and investment, business cycle and aggregate demand, balance of international payment, international monetary systems, international institutions, problems of Indian economy, mixed economy and welfare state, planning, liberalization, India as a knowledge ~ based economy.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Economics – Samuelson and Nordhaus, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006
- Indian Economy – Datt and Sundharam, S Chand and Co., 2004

### ED322 VLSI Testing and Validation (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ The course is designed to cover the fundamental aspects of VLSI testing and provide a strong fundamental understanding of test basics: the causes and behaviour of manufacturing defects in VLSI technology; defect statistics, fault models; test generation for stuck ~ at faults, scan design ~ for ~ test (DFT), built ~ in self ~ test (BIST), memory test, etc. The process of design verification where the basic verification principle and verification methodologies will also be covered. The basic idea is to equip students to envisage testing and verification in a larger design space like SoC.

**Course Contents:**

- Introduction to Testing; VLSI Testing Process and Test Equipment; Yield; Reject Rate
- Fault Modelling; Fault equivalence and dominance; fault collapsing; Fault simulation
- Testability Measures
- Test generation for combinational circuits
- Test pattern generation for sequential circuits
- Memory testing
- Design for Testability, Built~in self~test techniques
- Basic Verification Principle, Verification Methodology~Functional verification and simulation based verification, Verification challenges
- Formal Verification Preliminaries
- Decision diagram, Equivalence Checking, Model checking

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- M.L. Bushnell & V.D. Agrawal ~ Essentials of Electronic Testing (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000)
- LT, Wang, C ~ W, Wu and X. Wen ~ VLSI Test Principles and Architectures (Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 2006)
- H. Fujiwara ~ Logic Testing and Design for testability (MIT Press, 1985)
- N.K. Jha & S. Gupta ~ Testing of Digital Systems (Cambridge University Press, 2004)

### VLSI Technology (3-0-0-3)

__Course Objective:__ This course will provide an introduction to physical principles of modern semiconductor devices and their advanced fabrication technology. This course is multi ~ disciplinary in nature.

**Course Contents:**

- Introduction to semiconductor device physics:
- Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor
- IC Processing Steps of Fabrication, Wafer fabrication, CMOS process integration, Moore’s law, CMOS technology scaling
- Device and Process simulation and modeling.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Streetman & Banerjee ~ Solid State Electronic Devices (PHI Learning Pvt Ltd, 6th Edition, 2006)
- S. M. Sze ~ Physics of Semiconductor Devices (John Wiley)
- Donald Neamen ~ Semiconductor Physics and Devices.

### VLSI Circuits for DSP (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ Digital signal processing hardware is an important element in real time application that enhances the performance of the system. This course provides various VLSI architectures used in digital signal processing such as discrete orthogonal transformations, digital filtering etc. The course aims to provide advanced understanding of hardware designs of various Digital Signal Processing operations.

**Course Contents:**

- Arithmetic Circuits
- Digital filter design
- Discrete Wavelet transform
- FFT architectures
- Hardware/software co ~ design
- Digital signal processor design ~ Von ~ Neumann, Harvard
- Design of DSP Data ~ Path Blocks

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- V. Oppenheium ~ R. W. Schafer
- Discrete ~ Time Signal Processing (2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999)
- Moris M. Mano ~ Computer System Architecture (3rd Edition, Pearson Publication, 2007)
- John L. Hannessey & David A. Patterson ~ Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach (4th Edition, Elsevier, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2007)
- K.K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and Implementation, John Wiley, 1999
- Y.T. Chan ~ Wavelet Basics (Kluwer Publishers, Boston, 1993)

### Real Time Embedded Software (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course provides an overview of the unique concepts and techniques needed to design and implement computer systems having real ~ time response requirements in an embedded environment. It contrasts the concepts and techniques of real time and embedded systems with those of more traditional computer systems.

**Course Contents:**

- Basic concepts, Current trends in real time and embedded systems
- Examples of embedded systems: microprocessors and microcontrollers
- ARM Cortex M0+ Hardware
- Programming Languages: C, RTOS
- Future trends of embedded systems
- Internet of Things

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design ~ Wolf, Marilyn (Elsevier, 2012)
- Real ~ Time Systems Design and Analysis: Tools for the Required Materials: Grading: Practitioner. Laplante ~ Phillip A. & Seppo J. Ovaska (John Wiley and Sons, 2011)

### Analog & Mixed Signal IC (2-0-4-4)

__Course Objective:__ The course covers topic on filters, PLL, LNAs, clock generation and power supply design. This course is an introductory level course for analog/mixed ~ signal IC students.

**Course Contents:** This course will provide advanced circuit design concepts

- Device and Design Methodology,
- Continuous/Discrete ~ time Amplifiers, OTAs and OPAMP, Comparators
- Applied Analog/Mixed ~ Signal Circuits, Power Converter Circuits, Switched ~ capacitors (SC) Phase Locked Loop, Analog ~ to ~ digital / Digital ~ to ~ Analog Circuits, Sensor Interface
- Power Supplies

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- B. Razavi ~ Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits (2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, 2017)
- W. Sansen ~ Analog Design Essentials (Springer, 2013)
- A. Sedra & K. Smith ~ Microelectronic Circuits (7th Edition, Oxford Univ. Press, 2015)
- P. R. Gray, P. J. Hurst, S. H. Lewis & R. G. Meyer ~ Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (5th Edition., Wiley, 2009)

### Advanced Computer Architecture (2-0-4-4)

__Course Objective:__ This advanced level course discusses the evolution of modern computer architectures.

**Course Contents:**

- Evolution of Computers, Virtualised processors
- The programming interface
- Memory Hierarchies, Branch prediction
- Instruction parallelism, Data parallelism, Thread parallelism
- GPUs and other accelerators, DSPs
- System on ~ chip Simulation

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- John L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson ~ Computer Organization & Design: The Hardware / Software Interface (2013)
- John L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson ~ Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach (2013)

### Secure Hardware (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course covers security and trust of hardware and embedded devices, with a particular focus on the emerging security challenges facing the internet of things technology.

**Course Contents:**

- Physical and invasive attacks, side ~ channel attacks,
- Hardware Trojan detection, detection and prevention of counterfeit electronics,
- Cryptographic primitives design like physically unclonable functions, random number generators.
- Principles of trusted computing,
- Industry standards solutions for securing IoT devices
- Application Studies

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Will Arthur & David Challener ~ A Practical Guide to TPM 2.0: Using the New Trusted Platform Module in the New Age of Security (ApressOpen)
- M. Tehranipoor and C. Wang, “Introduction to Hardware Security and Trust”, Springer 2012.
- D. Mukhopadhyay and R.S. Chakraborty, “Hardware Security – Design, threats and safeguards, CRC Press, 2014.

### MEMS and Applications (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ To gain an understanding of standard microfabrication techniques and how miniature devices used in our daily lives are fabricated.

**Course Contents:**

- Micro Fabrication Technology
- Characterization Methods
- Fabrication of Commercially Available MEMS Devices
- Application of MEMS

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- Volume II: Fundamentals of Microfabrication & Nanotechnology: Manufacturing Techniques for Microfabrication and Nanotechnology ~ Marc J. Madou (CRC Press)
- Introduction to Microfabrication ~ Sami Franssila, Wiley (2nd Edition)

### IoT Sensors & Systems (3-0-2-4)

__Course Objective:__ This course introduces the basic components of IoT and their interdependencies, deployment models, and fundamental concepts of IoT networking. It will cover topics in IoT networks, communication protocols and data manipulation. It will also cover topics on security, data analytics, and management for IoT Systems.

**Course Contents:**

- Introduction to IoT system design,
- Components of system design,
- Sensors and actuators, Interface electronics,
- IoT Network topologies,
- IoT Hardware security design, need of hardware security design for the IoT applications, Hardware design concepts and protocols, Challenges in the hardware security design, Basic implementation of hardware security using the digital devices,
- Applications in Agriculture for in-situ measurements.

**Resources & Textbooks:**

- The Internet of Things: Enabling Technologies, Platforms, and Use Cases ~ Eethurum Raj & Anupama C. Raman (CRC Press)
- Internet of Things: A Hands~On Approach ~ Arshdeep Bahga & Vijay Madisetti (Universities Press)

### Admission Process

Details on the application process, admission criteria, fee structure and financial assistance can be found **here**